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LONDON — Three hundred years ago, after King James II had suspended Parliament and tried to rule alone, the pendulum of power swung in the British Isles. In the revolution that swept him aside, the monarchy, once supreme, ceded powers to lawmakers, gradually rendering itself an ornament in a system increasingly controlled by Parliament.

But the truce that evolved in the centuries that followed — between the government and monarchy on one side, and Parliament on the other — was threatened last month when Prime Minister Boris Johnson told the queen to send lawmakers home, starving them of precious time to make their own plans before Britain’s exit from the European Union.